Israeli-Palestinian Peace Accords
Dates and Agreements
September 9, 1993: Exchange of letters between PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin
September 13, 1993: Oslo I— The Israeli-Palestinian Declaration of Principles
May 5, 1994: Gaza-Jericho Self-Rule Agreement
August 29, 1994: Agreement on Preparatory Transfer of Powers and Responsibilities
September 28, 1995: Oslo II— Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement on the West Bank and Gaza Strip
January 17, 1997: Protocol Concerning the Redeployment in Hebron
October 23, 1998: Wye River Memorandum
September 4, 1999: Sharm el-Sheikh Memorandum
Israel has (1) recognized the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) as the representative of the Palestinians; (2) allowed complete Palestinian autonomy in certain areas and civil autonomy in others; (3) allowed Palestinian self-government and elections; (4) allowed a Palestinian police force; (5) transferred powers to the Palestinian Authority (PA) in areas of education, culture, social welfare, tourism, health, and taxation; (6) released thousands of Palestinian prisoners; (7) withdrawn from Gaza and Jericho and from 40 percent of Judea/Samaria. Thus 95 percent of the Arab population is now under PA control.
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and PA have complied with virtually nothing.
Arafat committed the PLO to “a peaceful resolution of the conflict” yet intentionally fomented the Al-Aqsa Intifada in September 2000 following the July 2000 Camp David Summit.
Arafat committed the PLO to renounce terrorism and violence. Yet, since September 2000, the Palestinians have committed close to 14,000 acts of terror and violence.
Arafat committed the PLO to discipline violators of the accords. Yet the PLO turns loose terrorists and other violent offenders.
Arafat committed the PLO to amend the Palestinian National Charter, which calls both for Israel’s destruction and for an “armed struggle” as “the only way to liberate Palestine.” It has not done so.
Arafat committed the PLO to “assume responsibility over all PLO elements and personnel.” Yet, despite clear evidence to the contrary, both he and the PLO repeatedly deny culpability for terrorizing Israel.
The PLO agreed that only “Palestinian Police and the Israeli military forces” would operate in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Yet Arafat’s political party, Fatah, has its own militia, the Tanzim, which fights Israeli forces.
The PLO agreed to a police force of only 24,000 men. Yet it has more than 40,000, many of whom are known terrorists, including 150 members of Hamas. Its ratio of 16.7 police per 1,000 residents makes the PA force one of the largest in the world and 60 percent larger than Israel’s police force.
The PLO agreed its police would carry only small arms. Yet it possesses grenades, antitank missiles, antiaircraft missiles, mortars, mines, high explosives, and more. It also was expecting 50 tons of illegal armaments, but Israel captured the shipment being smuggled on the Karine-A in January 2002.
The PLO agreed to protect Jewish holy places. Yet it allowed the destruction of Joseph’s Tomb in Nablus and the Shalom Al-Yisrael Synagogue in Jericho.
The PLO agreed to abstain from incitement, yet its official news media promote hatred, violence, and fear.
The PLO agreed to joint security operations with Israel to ensure peace and order. Yet it consistently refuses to cooperate with Israel.
During the July 2000 Camp David Summit, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak offered Arafat 95 percent of Judea/ Samaria (West Bank), 100 percent of the Gaza Strip, a Palestinian state, and sovereignty over East Jerusalem (including the Temple Mount). Arafat rejected the offer, did not counteroffer, and two months later initiated the 2000 Intifada.
In a speech given on May 10, 1994, in a mosque in Johannesburg, South Africa, Arafat declared he was considering the recently signed Oslo Accords as
the agreement which had been signed between our prophet Muhammad and Koraish, and you remember the Caliph Omar had refused this agreement and [considered] it a despicable truce. But Muhammad had accepted it and we are accepting now this peace offer. But to continue our way to Jerusalem, to the first shrine together and not alone. We are in need of you as Moslems, as warriors of Jihad.
Arafat was referring to the 10-year treaty Muhammad made with the inhabitants of Mecca at Hudaibiya. At first, Muhammad’s followers disliked the treaty. However, Islam teaches that the Treaty of Hudaibiya was a treaty of expediency that paved the way for Muhammad’s eventual conquest of Mecca. Arafat’s meaning is clear:
He considers the Oslo Accords a means to achieve his ultimate goal—the conquest of all of “Palestine,” with Jerusalem as its capital.