Amillennialism (No Millennium) rejects Christ’s literal 1,000-year reign on Earth; spiritualizes Revelation 20 to mean His reign in heaven with Christians; and claims Christ’s Second Coming is accompanied by a general resurrection and judgment of all people, followed by the eternal state.
Covenant Theology views God’s relationship with mankind through a Covenant of Works and Covenant of Grace. (Some add a Covenant of Redemption.) Most Reformed theologians hold this position. Old Testament prophecies are interpreted figuratively, not literally, and prophecies concerning Israel’s future are seen as fulfilled in the church. Thus the church replaces Israel as the people of God.
Dispensationalism (Classical Dispensationalism) uses a literal-grammatical-historical interpretation of Scripture; distinguishes between Israel and the church; and places the Rapture before the seven-year Tribulation, which is followed by Christ’s return to establish the Millennial Kingdom, which merges into the eternal state at the end of 1,000 years. The Abrahamic, Davidic, and New Covenants are fulfilled in the Millennium. This is the position of The Friends of Israel.
Emergent Church is a postmodern, subjective, relative, and feeling-oriented movement that is continually changing to meet modern spiritual needs. It possesses no unified theological position and denies the existence of absolute biblical truth. Its hallmarks include mysticism, ecumenical inclusion, and relativism.
Eschatology is the study of last things (Bible prophecy) and reveals the outworking of God’s sovereign plan and purposes in history.
Hermeneutics is the science and art of Bible interpretation. It refers to the principles, rules, and methods used in studying Scripture.
Historic Premillennialism maintains Christ will return to establish His Millennial Kingdom on Earth after the Tribulation, and that is when He will rapture His church. Thus it is posttribulational Premil-lennialism. It makes no distinction between Israel and the church.
Inaugurated Eschatology employs the “already/not yet” philosophy, claiming God’s Kingdom began at Christ’s First Coming but will be fully consummated at His Second Coming. The church today supposedly has access to the Kingdom promises. This view blurs the distinction between Israel and the church and leads into Progressive Dispensationalism.
Kingdom Now Theology believes the church must reestablish God’s rule on Earth before Christ’s return; denies the Rapture; and spiritualizes future promises to Israel, seeing them fulfilled in the church. Kingdom Now Theology is filled with unbiblical, false teachings.
Millennial Kingdom is Christ’s literal reign on Earth for 1,000 years after His Second Coming (Rev. 20:1–7).
Postmillennialism is a 19th-century teaching that claims preaching the gospel will Christianize the world and that Christ will return after a time of peace called the Millennium.
Postmodernism is a 20th-century, Western-society movement that radically reappraises assumptions about culture, personal identity, history, and religion. It emphasizes diversity in worldviews and the inability to know absolute truth.
Premillennialism (Dispensational Premillennialism) maintains Christ will return to establish His Millennial Kingdom on Earth after the Tribulation. It holds to a Pretribulation Rapture and clearly distinguishes between Israel and the church. This is the position of The Friends of Israel.
Preterism claims the book of Revelation communicated how God would deliver Christians from the Roman Empire and predicted Jerusalem’s fall in AD 70 when the Romans destroyed the city. It sees no future for national Israel.
Progressive Dispensationalism embraces the “already/not yet” view that Jesus is ruling spiritually in heaven on David’s throne but that He will reign in a future 1,000-year Kingdom on Earth at His Second Coming.
Rapture is Christ’s imminent return for His church prior to the seven-year Tribulation.
Realized Eschatology claims all New Testament prophecy was fulfilled during Christ’s ministry on Earth; and when Jesus said, “Repent; for the kingdom of heaven is at hand” (Mt. 4:17), He meant His Kingdom was present and not future.
Reformed Theology originated with the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century and holds strongly to the sovereignty of God and salvation by grace. Its beliefs are stated in the Westminster Confession. Most Reformed theologians interpret the Old Testament prophecies figuratively, not literally, and see prophecies concerning Israel’s future as fulfilled in the church; so the church replaces Israel as the people of God.
Replacement Theology (Supersessionism) teaches that the church has replaced Israel and prophecies made to Israel are being fulfilled in the church today. Prophecies made specifically to Israel in the Old Testament are spiritualized or allegorized and referred to as blessings to Christ’s church. This is not the position of The Friends of Israel.
Tribulation/Great Tribulation is a future seven-year period called “Jacob’s trouble” (Jer. 30:7). It begins when the Antichrist confirms a covenant with many in Israel (Dan. 9:27) and God pours out His judgment on the entire ungodly world and brings Israel to national repentance and reconciliation (Rev. 6—19).
Two-peoples-of-God Theory is a defining aspect of Dispensationalism that views Israel and the church as separate entities with distinct promises.